Assoc.Prof. Le Van Tho
Technical adviser of BIO-PHARMACHEMIE cooperationMastitis, metritis and agalactia, commonly referred as MMA, is a complex syndrome seen in sows with the morbidity accounted for 40%. It is caused by a bacterial infection of the mammary glands and/or the urogenital tract. MMA leads to increased piglet mortality and reduced weaning weights. The following conception rate will decrease if the sows are not treated well.
· Sows: clinical signs include constipation, fever (above 39.5°C), anorexia. Inappetence is often the first sign to be noticed, along with restlessness during suckling and a loss of condition in the litter. Sometimes, sows lie down on her stomach to hide their teats and to avoid the piglets suckling. The udders are inflammed, hard, swollen, red and painful during palpation. Decreasing milk yield and purulent discharge from vulva (milky white, bad smell). Some cases of MMA show all signs together, while other cases just show individual signs.
· Piglets: declined daily liveweight gain of piglets, screaming, and hungry-sign. Sometimes diarrhea and decreased body temperature are additional signs.
Some causes of metritis and mastitis in sows and prevention
1. The most effective prevention method is increasing hygiene level for individual sow and pens to stop the infection of bacteria into the udders and uterus. Some antiseptics are recommended such as BIO-GUARD, BIODINE ® or BIOSEPT ®.
2. Clean the sows properly before taking them to farrowing crates. These crates must be clean and dry during the time sows nursing piglets. This requires an effective cleaning and disinfection protocol. Keep silent to reduce stress for sows during parturition period. One day after birth, piglets should have the teeth clipped to avoid damage to sow's teats.
3. Right after parturition, the sows should be injected one dose of BIO-CEFQUIN to prevent bacterial infection. In addition, use one tablet of BIO-VAGILOX inside the uterus as a barrier and one more tablet for the next day.
4. Sows that get more exercises before farrowing and in the early stage of lactation may be less prone to developing MMA. Avoid slippery floors, which are one of the main causes of reduced activity in lactating sows. Fat sows (body condition score 4+) are more disposed to MMA, as are those given excessive feed before farrowing. Make sure adequate water is available to sows at all times; lactating sows require 15 to 30 litres per day.
Diet for sows to prevent mastitis
· During pregnancy until 3 days before parturition: 2-3 kg mixed feed/day depending on body condition, clean vegetables added in diet.
· Decrease mixed-diet to 1-1.5 kg/day in two days before giving birth
· After farrowing, add 0.5 kg/day until the time the sows can eat 5 kg/day.
Treatment must combine antibiotic injection, medicine tablet inside uterus and drugs to stimulate milk production.
1. Recommended antibiotics and medicines to reduce inflammation: BIO-CEFQUIN, BIO-CEP 5BIO-CEP 5, BIO-AMOX LABIO-AMOX LA, BIO TETRA 200 LA, BIO-GENTA.AMOX INJBIO-GENTA.AMOX INJ ®, BIO-D.O.C ®, or BIO-FLORSONEBIO-FLORSONE 400 LA, etc.
2. Wash infected uterus with antiseptic 3ml BIODINE ®/2 ml water, wait until antiseptic totally get out, put BIO-VAGILOX inside the uterus.
3. Inject BIO-CALCIUM 20ml together with BIO-CEVIT 10ml intravenously (on ears) or apply this mixture by fluid therapy with BIO-GLUCOSE 5% for sows.
4. Inject low-dose BIO-OXYTOCINBIO-OXYTOCIN 1 ml/sow, (10 IU/sow). Add BIO-METASALBIO-METASAL to increase recovery speed.
During this time, use BIO-MILK ®BIO-MILK ® to supply enough energy and prevent dehydration for piglets. Concurrently, if there are sows that have the same farrowing period, move these piglets into those herd.
Assoc.Prof. Le Van Tho